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Essential Guide to Poultry Housing Design and Management

Empowering African Farmers for Sustainable Farming Culture

Essential Guide to Poultry Housing Design and Management

Essential Guide to Poultry Housing Design and Management

Learn about the Poultry Health and Productivity Factors, Types, and Management Practises. Proper poultry housing is critical for bird comfort, safety, and well-being. Learn about the most important characteristics, types, and management practises for optimal poultry health and productivity.

The design and maintenance of poultry housing is critical to the health and productivity of poultry. Proper housing is critical for the birds’ comfort, safety, and well-being. We will address the issues that farmers must consider while planning and managing chicken housing, such as ventilation, lighting, temperature management, and biosecurity precautions, in this post.

Factors to Consider in Poultry Housing Design


Proper ventilation in poultry housing is critical because it removes excess moisture, gases, and odours while also providing fresh air for the birds to breathe. It also aids in temperature regulation and the prevention of the growth of dangerous germs and diseases. Natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation are the two types of ventilation systems.

Natural ventilation is accomplished by moving air via openings such as windows, doors, and vents. This technology is primarily employed in smaller buildings, and the direction of the building is critical for optimal airflow.

Mechanical ventilation regulates temperature and airflow through fans, heaters, and controllers. This technology is often employed in larger chicken operations and gives greater environmental control.


Adequate lighting is critical for the health and production of chickens. The amount of light required varies according to the birds’ age and breed. Light promotes egg production, aids in growth and development, and influences behaviour. It also aids in the regulation of circadian rhythms, which are critical for overall health and well-being.

Temperature Control:

Poultry are temperature sensitive, so it’s critical to keep them in a pleasant and consistent environment. The ideal temperature range for poultry is 65-75°F. Temperatures over this range can cause stress in birds, resulting in lower productivity and greater susceptibility to disease. Heaters, cooling systems, and insulation are all strategies for keeping the temperature stable.

Biosecurity Measures:

Biosecurity is essential in poultry farms to prevent disease entry and transmission. It entails putting in place processes to decrease the risk of disease transmission, such as restricting access to the facility, sanitising equipment, and putting in place sanitation protocols. Personal protection equipment (PPE) such as boots, coveralls, and gloves are also vital in preventing disease spread.


Essential Guide to Poultry Housing Design and Management

Types of Poultry Housing Systems

Free-Range Housing:

Birds in free-range housing have access to the outdoors, allowing them to engage in natural behaviours such as scratching, foraging, and dust-bathing. This sort of house requires a lot of space, and the birds are exposed to natural elements like predators and weather. It is critical to rotate pasture and keep living places clean and dry to prevent illness transmission.

Cage-Free Housing:

Cage-free housing offers greater space to birds than traditional cage systems, allowing them to walk about and display natural behaviours. Perches, nests, and litter for foraging and dust-bathing are common features of this sort of habitation. Cage-free living also necessitates strong biosecurity measures to avoid disease transmission, and regular cleaning and disinfection are required to maintain a healthy habitat.

Conventional Cage Housing:

The most prevalent type of housing utilised in commercial poultry farms is conventional cage housing. This system typically consists of small individual cages housing one or more birds. While this sort of housing provides a regulated habitat for birds, it does not allow them to show natural behaviours or move around freely. To avoid disease transmission, strong biosecurity measures must be undertaken, and cages must be cleaned and disinfected on a regular basis.

Essential Guide to Poultry Housing Design and Management

Management Practices for Poultry Housing

Proper management practices are essential for the health and productivity of poultry. The following are some tips for managing poultry housing:

  • Regularly clean and disinfect the housing area to prevent disease transmission.
  • Implement strict biosecurity measures, such as controlling access to the facility and implementing sanitation protocols.
  • Monitor temperature and humidity levels and make adjustments as needed to maintain a comfortable and consistent environment.
  • Monitor lighting levels and adjust as needed based on the age and breed of the birds.
  • Provide adequate ventilation to remove excess moisture, gases, and odors and provide fresh air for the birds to breathe.
  • Provide clean and dry bedding, such as shavings or straw, to prevent moisture buildup and the growth of harmful bacteria.
  • Ensure that the birds have access to clean and fresh water at all times.
  • Provide a balanced diet that meets the nutritional needs of the birds.
  • Monitor the birds for signs of disease or stress and take appropriate action if necessary.


Proper poultry house design and management are essential for poultry health and productivity. When designing and managing chicken housing, farmers must consider issues such as ventilation, lighting, temperature control, and biosecurity protection. There are several types of housing systems, such as free-range, cage-free, and conventional housing, and each requires a separate set of management practises to guarantee the health and well-being of the birds. Farmers can guarantee that their birds are healthy, productive, and profitable by applying good management practises.

Additional Resources

  1. USDA. (2022). Poultry Production and Value 2020 Summary. 
  2. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. (2019). Poultry Sector: Improving Animal Welfare through Better Management Practices.
  3. Mississippi State University Extension. (2021). Poultry House Environmental Management and Energy Conservation. 
  4. American Humane. (2022). Poultry Housing. 
  5. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. (2021). Poultry Housing Systems. 
  6. The Poultry Site. (2022). Poultry Biosecurity Measures. Retrieved from 
  7. University of Georgia Cooperative Extension. (2021). Lighting for Small Poultry Flocks.
  8. Penn State Extension. (2022). Bedding Management for Poultry.
  9. World Animal Protection. (2017). Better Chicken Commitment.
  10. For more Articles Visit